How Does Automatic Transmission Change Gears

As drivers, we know how the transmission works: we push the clutch in, change the gear and then continue driving normally. Manual transmission also teaches us how to perform clutch control without stalling or rolling on an incline. So how does an automatic car change gears?
There are more parts in this system that makes it a more complicated system. An automatic car has something called a torque converter. For the car to move forward, whether manual or automatic, torque is needed for the initial momentum.
The torque converter is a fluid link where its job is to connect the engine to the transmission and the transmission to the driven wheels (Front Wheel Drive or Rear Wheel Drive).
The engine is connected to the transmission in a bell housing. This is where the torque converter is. The transmission also contains something called planetary gear sets which provide different gear ratios.
The engine’s flex plate is also connected to this torque converter. So the torque converter basically takes the place of a clutch in an automatic car. When the crankshaft rotates it also rotates the converter. This is how the torque converter will disconnect and connect the engine’s power to the load being driven.
The torque converter has main components that make automatic transmission successful. These include:

  • The impeller – connected to the engine which is responsible for driving the turbine using viscous forces on the transmission fluid.
  • The turbine – connected to the transmission input shaft that sends the torque force to the transmission.
  • The stator – which sits between the impeller and the turbine. It lessens churning losses.
    The lock up clutch.

During the compression of the fluid it returns from the turbine that works against the impeller and its rotating movement that also acts on the engine.
The stator redirects the fluid so that the majority of the velocity gets driven towards the impeller which then adds to the torque produced by the motor. It can only rotate in one direction if the impeller and turbine are moving at the same speed. Stators do not apply torque when on a highway, only when coming to a stop or accelerating.
A planetary gear set consists of a sun gear and planet gears which rotate around the central sun gear, like our solar system. A planet carrier gear connects the planet gears with a ring gear that meshes them. The planetary gear set prevents certain components from moving when using clutches and brakes. This alters the input and the output of the system that changes the overall gear ratio.
Depending on which component is fixed it will determine the final gear ratio. If a ring gear is stationery or fixed, the ratio will be shorter than if the sun gear is fixed or stationery.

Keeping Family Pets Safe From Wildlife

Raccoons, opossums, mice, bats, and birds can all be adorable and fun to watch, but some people just don’t understand the potential dangers that these forms of wildlife can pose to their family and pets. An encounter with even a small and seemingly harmless wild animal that finds their way onto your property can result in serious consequences for you, your children and your luxury dogs and cats.
Wild mammals and birds can damage your property, upset trash receptacles and set up nests in your yard, in your shed or even in accessible areas of your home. Certain forms of wildlife carry fleas, lice and ticks and can bring the threat of potentially deadly diseases like rabies.
Simple Steps to Protect Your Family and Pets
Even if you live in an area where wildlife sightings are very common, it doesn’t necessarily mean that there needs to be an imminent danger to your kids, dogs, and cats. In fact, there are some very simple steps that you can take to minimize the potential risk of an unwanted wildlife encounter:
Keep Trash Bins Securely Covered
Squirrels, rats, raccoons, opossums and wild cats all love to rummage through the garbage that contains scraps of food. By keeping trash in tightly tied bags and in cans with secure lids, you eliminate a major source of attraction for wildlife.
Make sure your Fence is in Good Condition
Fixing holes or replacing missing planks in the fence around your property keeps rabbits, raccoons, and many other mammals off of your property. A secure boundary really minimizes the chances for a potentially dangerous encounter between a wild animal and your pets or children.
Don’t leave Pets Outside Unattended
Even with a solid fence, some animals will still find their way into your yard. If your dogs are out roaming for extended periods they have a greater chance of coming across a wild animal that has made its way onto your property. If the animal has a nest or a food source nearby they may become aggressive and look to protect instead of escape. This can result in serious injury to both your pet and the wild animal.
Keep Cats Indoors
Cats are natural hunters and are not necessarily deterred by your fence. If there is a bird or rabbit in a neighbor’s yard, they will likely give chase. A cat who exits the confines of your property is at a much greater risk of injury due to a wild animal attack, but to other dangers (like traffic, poison or traps left out by others for wild animals, etc.)
Ultrasonic Pest Protection
Ultrasonic pest repellents use high-frequency sound waves to drive away a variety of pests, rodents, and insects. For homeowners who are looking for a hands off and mess free method of keeping unwanted pests out of their home, this can be a safe and effective solution.
Ultrasonic repellents are safe for humans and family pets (you can’t hear the sounds, neither can your pets, there are no poisons and no danger of pets or kids suffering the injuries that can occur from snap traps). After the fast and easy initial setup, there is nothing to do but allow the device to work driving away unwanted pests.
In addition to the steps above, simply avoiding contact with wildlife is also a major factor in keeping pets and family members safe. Don’t leave food out for wild animals, don’t intentionally engage with them and never encourage your pets to interact with wildlife.
Even those with the best of intentions and those who have taken the proactive measures mentioned above can still find themselves in a position where a wild animal has entered their home or garage and is posing a potential threat. In these instances, it is important that the situation is handled properly to minimize the risk.
It’s never a good idea to attempt to poison a wild animal on your property. Poison baits have elements that attract wildlife (they look and smell like food), which may also attract your family pets.
Cornering a wild animal is also not advisable. Raccoons, opossums, and birds can all become very territorial, especially if they have a nest nearby. Cornering them can insight an attack, which can result in serious injury for any people or pets in the area.
If a wild animal has set up residence in your home, garage or yard or is posing a threat to your family it makes sense to enlist the help of a professional. A wildlife control expert can quickly analyze the wildlife threat on your property and take the best steps toward removal in a manner that ensures the safety of your family and your pets and with minimal risk to the wild animal.
A trained wildlife control expert can also suggest the best methods for cleaning and sanitize the area after removal and help set up protective measures to minimize the chances of future unwanted encounters.

Types Of Mounted Mailboxes And Their Benefits

Keeping belongings safe is a must. Because of this, more and more homeowners invest in storage items like cabinets and drawers. Apart from that, individuals can also make use of other storage units to secure their items. For instance, when receiving mails and packages, it is best for homeowners to own a mailbox.
There are numerous types of mailbox individuals can choose from. These include freestanding, brick in and even mounted mailboxes. As of now, homeowners prefer to make use of mounted mailboxes. Of course, installing such box can be stressful. However, this type of letterbox can provide wonderful features that can benefit you. To know more, below are some of the most popular mounted mailboxes and its benefits.
Post Mount
One of the most common mounted mailboxes homeowners make use of is the post mounted letterbox. When using such letterbox, individuals are required to use a post and mounting board. As of now, post mounted letterboxes are made from galvanized steel for maximum rust resistance and durability. Apart from that, these boxes also feature a powder coat finish to make it more appealing. With regard to security, it is equipped with a lockable rear door. And, it is very visible which helps individuals send your mails and packages to your home easily.
Fence Mount
Another popular mounted mailbox is the fence mount. This type of letterboxes can be mounted into wood, brick and steel fences. Other than that, fence mounted boxes are made of sturdy galvanized steel and powder coated for added durability and style. These mailboxes also feature a stainless steel face-plate to make it more visible. Finally, a fence mount letterbox also has a key lockable rear door for better security.
Wall Mount
Finally, homeowners can also make use of wall mounted mailbox. This type of letterbox is installed into walls. With this mailbox, homeowners are rest assured that their mails are secured since it is created from sturdy 304′ grade stainless steel construction for durability & rust protection. Plus, it also features a weather shielded wide mail slot for all your A4 mail & documents.
Of course, there are cases when installing mounted letterboxes can be difficult most especially if you do not have the right fitting items. Fortunately, reliable providers can provide you with fitting items to help you make tasks easier and more efficient. Some providers also offer other home improvement products to make homes more appealing and valuable.

How To Respond To Settlement Letters In Copyright Infringement Cases

Settlement letters are sent to particular internet subscribers who are identified to have infringed a copyrighted material. Also known as letter of demand (LOD), the letter is usually composed of the name of the infringer, IP address, and all the details about copyright infringement. First of all, getting a demand letter such as a TCYK letter more likely means that you did violate the law and the copyright enforcers have evidence to prove that you have infringed a copyrighted content. Second, it is not advisable to just ignore the letter as it could result to serious legal consequences. So, when you get a demand letter, respond to it. In every illegal download case, ask about the situation or what the letter means. If you ever find yourself as a “John Doe” defendant, here are a few practical tips that can help you in your defense in the lawsuit:
– Settlement amounts are usually negotiable. If you get a TCYK letter or any settlement letter, chances are you will be offered a settlement amount. The figure may be changed depending on your approach or how you attempt to negotiate. So, it would not hurt to try especially if you really did it.
– Among the copyrighted materials that you can possibly pirate, porn bears the most embarrassment and it involves more risks so find a way to settle quickly. Don’t waste your time delaying the case. It is best to make it go away the minute it’s presented to you.
– Do not fight a subpoena. Doing so could only expose your identity. Copyright infringement is not something that you could just take for granted. You need to protect your own identification and avoid a potential scandal that will not help you in any way in your life.
– Fighting a case could lead to more expensive costs compared to every negotiated settlement. Besides the hassle that can be expected in a lawsuit, there are legal fees that you need to consider should you decide to fight a case. You may get a total that could have been avoided if you just settle.
As provided by copyright law, a copyright grants a creator exclusive rights to the distribution or reproduction of his original work. There may be exceptions but initially, the creator owns the copyright of their created work. It would be good if people have a better understanding of how creators such as those in the entertainment industry come up with works of art. But in the meantime, they should focus on how to respond to a letter of demand.
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'How Will I Know When It's Time To Say Goodbye?' End of Life Decisions For Our Pets

One of the most common questions a veterinarian will hear is “How will I know when it’s time to say goodbye?” This may be one of the most difficult questions you will ever have to ask your vet and it is certainly one of our most challenging ones to answer. There is no simple answer to this question, but rather a start to a conversation.
Our pets, by nature, have a shorter life expectancy than we do. They also, by nature, do not think about or fear death the way we do. They are too busy living. Animals experience life in the present moment. They sense what is going on in and around them in “real-time” and they are keenly sensitive to the moods, behaviors and emotional states of people, especially the people they love. So if you are suffering with thoughts of losing them, fearing the future, or worried about what to do, they will sense it and suffer right along with you, magnifying their dis-ease. When we pause to consider this time from our pets’ perspective, another more empowering question to ask might be, “How do I want my beloved pet to experience this time we have left together?” What would they want?
Unfortunately, we won’t always have the privileged of even asking these questions, and some will leave us before we’ve had the chance to say goodbye. But when we do have this chance, and we remember a simple truth that all life is transient, imagine this time you have left to share with each other as a gift, an opportunity to express your love and appreciation for them. They will sense it. Feeling your genuine love and gratitude will be the bridge you both need to ease the uncertainty of this time. This sense of love and gratitude will also ease in their transition, because when you are fully present with them, they are too. Then, when they are ready to leave the discomfort of their physical form, while remaining forever in your heart, you will know. They will tell you; just trust yourself to quiet your thoughts and listen with your heart.
Your veterinarian can assist you during this time by providing you with medical information about your pet that can help you understand what to expect. Ask your vet, and share how you are feeling, including what is contributing to any emotional conflicts that you may be experiencing. Remember, though, just like in any healing profession, individual veterinarians will have different capabilities and comfort in dealing with their client’s emotional needs. Your vet may be able to meet those needs, but if not, seek out other resources. New and growing areas in veterinary medicine include emotional support coaching for making difficult decisions and palliative-hospice care for in home management of pets as they approach their end of life. If this is something you are interested in, speak with your veterinarian to see if these are services they might offer or refer you for. Because ultimately, it’s about being present for your pet and remembering that when you love them in the moment, that is their experience too.

The Real Estate Resurgence of Glassell Park and Highland Park

Real estate in Northeast Los Angeles has been booming for years. We hear about it on television and in the news. Rarely does a news story get published where the term “Gentrification” is used to describe areas such as Eagle Rock, Mt. Washington and Highland Park, regions where home values have spiked. Is it something home-buyers and home sellers need to know?
By definition, “to gentrify” is to improve a house or district so that it conforms to middle-class taste. The middle class, or Bourgeoisie, is attempting to emulate upper-class standards. In the U.K., the gentry refer to people of high social position, specifically the class of people next below the nobility. Therefor the gentrification of an area is a process whereby those of lower socioeconomic status are forced out of a region in order to make it more attractive to the people of higher socioeconomic standing. Taking deteriorating inner city homes away from working class families to be renovated and sold to the privileged is also known as progress, or gentrification.
That is precisely what is occurring in the once run down neighborhood of Highland Park. This ongoing restorative transformation has helped to eradicate crime and strengthen the local economy. Juice bars and yogurt shops have sprung up in place of derelict Laundromats and liquor stores. Local businesses are now thriving, where the windows were once boarded up and car carcasses rusted.
Nowhere is this more evident than in the Northeast Los Angeles neighborhood of Glassell Park, where police not long ago bulldozed suspected gang homes in a dramatic crackdown on crime. Soon after, investors began investing in fixing up Glassell Park’s hillside view homes and property values began to rise with new shops and restaurants appearing in direct proportion.
At one time, Eco Park stood as the poster child for gentrification in Los Angeles. This forgotten slum went through a complete metamorphosis in the 90’s, turning it into one of the most sought after areas east of downtown. With Echo Park as a model, the restoration movement has continued its march east, rehabilitating other areas, such as Highland Park and Glassell Park, with great potential.
One telltale sign of the up and coming neighborhood is what is known as the Starbucks phenomenon. If this “7-eleven” of coffee houses has chosen to plant its green lady logo on the block, you can bet your bottom dollar that the ‘Hipsters are coming or more likely, the Hipsters have already arrived. This of course means that property values are climbing. In the historic region of Highland Park, York Boulevard is now book ended by Starbucks. Having a Starbucks on the corner is clear evidence that a moneyed community is on the rise. The values of homes for sale in Highland Park are absolutely exploding.
Another way of measuring affluence is by exploring the high volume of trendy restaurants, bars, and art galleries not to mention the cafes populated by too cool for school patrons everywhere. This enclave has become a hot spot for exotic dining among foodies and the like. Good eats just seem to go along with gentrification. That is one of the advantages. Today you can find French, Italian, Japanese, Vietnamese, and a wide variety of Vegan food in this once neglected district. It has become an amazing multi-cultural mecca. One more example of economic growth is improved public transportation. Business people can commute from paradise to downtown by train in a matter of minutes.
The median price for a house in Highland Park is now approaching seven hundred thousand. In relative terms, this area is still a bargain in Los Angeles’ exorbitant housing market. As the beautification of these older neighborhoods flourishes in NELA, the real estate naturally becomes more desirable and the property values escalate.

Rabat Must Visit Places on Holidays

The Villa des Arts in Rabat (as in Casablanca) is the result of corporate sponsorship through the foundation of the ONA Group. The latter (Omnium Nord Africain) is the first Moroccan private industrial and financial group formed as a holding company.
The Villa des Arts in Rabat aims to be a space for the discovery and promotion of contemporary arts with a permanent reference to Moroccan culture and heritage.
Located in the Hassan district near the As Sounna mosque, in a magnificent neo-colonial style house of the 1930s where you can admire the architecture, inside a superbly flowered and beautifully wooded park, Villa des Arts will attract you and make you feel that you are in one of the most pleasant places of Rabat with a halt freshness and culture at the same time. The entrance is free and you can easily move around by simply respecting this place dedicated to modern art in all its forms by selecting Morocco holiday packages.
The Villa des Arts is not a museum or even a gallery of exhibitions, but a cultural place that is divided into several spaces: in the main building, the Villa du Parc, the Carré d’art (the Futuroscope of the creators) The Al Borj space of concrete and glass that evokes the nearby Hassan Tower and will recall the BNRM, Al Qantara the bridge between cultures, multipurpose room for conferences, screenings and exhibitions, small theater which allows The performances of small lyrical, poetic and musical performances as well as open-air conferences, the Diwan space of permanent or itinerant exhibitions, retrospectives of eminent artists and the Gallery on the courtyard for emerging artists.
Upstairs the library and the media library shelter the places of research and exchange between students, researchers, historians and artists. The multimedia library is dedicated to students and researchers with the access to a selection of databases or sites in the fields of arts and culture.
Finally, the virtual museum hosts performances allowing the visitor to create the show from their own imaginary. The Village des Artistes, hosting the workshops of prestigious artists such as Chaïbia, Kacimi, Gharbaoui, and Cherkaoui, offers artists the opportunity to express, realize, make discover, transmit, and make understand the act Creation.
The Villa des Arts is a place that will make you fall in love with its artistic work and cultural hertitage and it’s a must visit site if you are in Rabat. Here are the names of the artists who have already exhibited at the Villa of Arts in Rabat: Maika Agueznay, Ahmed Mjidaoui, Dia Azzawi, Mohammed Melehi, Abdellah Sadouk, Mohammed Chabaa, Adlellatif Lasri, Milou Labied, Anissa Berrada.
Marina Bouregreg of Rabat-Salé:
At the entrance of Salé, along with the old Moulay Hassan Bridge and a few meters from the prestigious gate of Bab Lemrissa, Marina Bouregreg offers, over a 4-hectare lake, 240 moorings on floating pontoons, Sailing less than 30 meters and a maximum draft of 3 meters.
The construction site started in 2006 but the Marina was not able to really open in good conditions to foreign boaters until early 2009.
Backed by the future city of the Arts and the hotel complex that have not yet seen the light of day, the Marina Bouregreg welcomes the visitors in an excellent way. Some boaters may go particularly towards the Canary Islands because it is located half- Distance from European coasts in Morocco hotels & resorts.
In the evenings or on Sundays, the terraces of the cafes and restaurants along the docks towards the delight of the Rabat and Slaouis (the most affluent ones) where people come there willingly to take a refreshment while dreaming a little.
The other less fortunate people simply hang out when the overzealous security guards let them in, as these people often do their job with a hint of brutality confusing pleasure port and military port.

A Myth Regarding Personal Injury Protection

I often get told by my clients that they “do not want to make any claims on their own insurance policy” because “it will raise their rates.” Like many things, this is an insurance tactic meant to scare people from claiming what is rightfully theirs. Let me elaborate further.
Under Texas law, every person in the State must carry Personal Injury Protection (“PIP”) coverage on their auto insurance policy, unless you expressly sign a rejection or “opt-out” of this coverage. The State minimum requirement is $2,500, although many people carry $5,000 or $10,000 in coverage (or sometimes even more, depending on what their auto insurance carrier offers). Importantly, under the Texas Insurance Code, it is illegal for your insurance company to raise your insurance rates, drop your coverage, affect your credit, etc. for making these claims. Therefore, if you have this coverage, you always want to use it.
PIP coverage is meant to reimburse you for two things: (1) medical bills you have already incurred or (2) lost wages (although it will only cover 80% of your lost wages). Additionally, Texas allows “stacking” of insurance benefits. For example, let’s say you get into an accident and you are taken to the emergency room where you incur a $10,000.00 bill. Let’s also say that you have the standard $2,500 PIP policy through your insurance company. After you are finished treating, we send that same $10,000 bill to both the Defendant’s insurance company and to your own. We get you paid $10,000 from this insurance company plus $2,500 from your own PIP coverage for a total reimbursement of $12,500. That’s right, you get paid $12,500 for a bill that was originally $10,000.
I always tell my clients the same thing: If you pay for this coverage every month in your premium, and if your insurance company cannot raise your rates for using it, then why wouldn’t you use it? It is free money falling out of the sky. However, because it’s free money falling out of the sky, many insurance companies (and their agents) will deliberately try to convince you that you do not need it because “it cost more.” Again, this cannot be further from the truth. The cost of this coverage is literally pennies on the dollar for what you get in return should you need to use it. Further, the best part is that this coverage is no-fault, meaning you are entitled to these benefits whether you caused the accident or if someone else hit you.
For these reasons, it is a no-brainer not only to have this coverage, but also to use it once you need it.
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How to Take Care of Pets

In today’s busy and self-centered world when no one has any time for anyone else, pets in our homes make for the best friends and companions we can ever hope to have! The joy and enthusiasm that my pet dog greets me with when I reach home at the end of a long and arduous workday immediately lifts my spirits and any tiredness I bring back with me vanishes into thin air. Pets are loyal, faithful, unconditional and spontaneous in their love and benefit us in several ways.
In return, it is important for us to ensure we care for our pets too in the best way possible.
Here are some key ways in which you can make sure you are being a responsible pet owner and carer!
Space: Pets need to have a place that is safe, dry, clean and cozy. While deliberating on the choice of our pets we must carefully consider the space it will require for the aquarium for our fish, corner for our cat or dog or cage for the lovebirds we so wish to have! If an entire room is too much to think of, a clear and demarcated boundary can be created for your furry friend.
Diet: According to the pet that you own, you must strive to ensure they are fed a balanced and nutritious diet. Every species and breed in turn has foods that are permissible and those that can cause greater harm than good. Make sure you check with the vet and only feed your pet the right kind of foods and appropriate portions. Just as food needs to be carefully monitored, so too you must ensure that your pet has adequate and clean drinking water available.
Exercise: All pets need their space to be able to flex their muscles and spread their wings. Pets like dogs need to be taken for a scheduled walk regularly. Pet birds must have enough room in their cages not to feel cramped. A daily exercise routine will ensure your pets are healthy and happy
Medical Attention: Regular checkups with the veterinarian will make sure that your pet is hale and healthy and will help to diagnose any ailments well in advance. Vaccinations must be given in a timely and disciplined manner.
Cleanliness: All pets have cleanliness and hygiene needs. Pets like dogs and cats must be bathed regularly and groomed to keep their fur, hair, nails and skin well cared for. The area your pets are housed in must be cleaned and washed daily to keep the surroundings clean and pest free. Make sure also to keep your pet free of parasites like fleas, ticks and worms. Fish bowls or aquarium water needs to be changed appropriately in a timely fashion.
Supervision: While most pets once trained and habitual to their environment tend to stay safe it is important for a new pet to be supervised till they get a lay of the land! Inadvertently leaving the cage open could let the parrot or parakeet escape, dashing out of an ajar door could let the puppy or kitten to make a wild dash out onto the street which could be potentially dangerous.

Know How Acrylic Rendering Can Benefit You and Your House

Rendering has become one of the most acceptable forms of exterior coverage for residences, commercial places along with the workplaces. Whether you want to have a classic appearance to your house or want a contemporary look for your home, there is no better option than to put a cover on the wall. Available in multiple options and varieties, rendering can prove to be a fantastic choice on your part. The most common dilemma arrives when it comes to choosing rendering you wish to incorporate to your walls.
Among the most popular choices, cement rendering and foam rendering are considered to be the first preference of a significant section of people. However, if you think about affordability and quality of work at the same level, consider covering your wall with acrylic rendering. Take a look at the significant benefits that are related to the acrylic rendering before making any final decision regarding it.
Resistant to cracks
This particular type of rendering is known to be the most flexible among all the other options. Unlike cement, it does not just stick to the wall. Weather change is a prime reason that can cause the appearance of cracks in the walls if the material you are planning to use is not resistant to expand in heat. Acrylic is undoubtedly a flexible material that gets extended when the chances of cracks occur. Thus, you may expect a long-term durability from this particular rendering compared to the other options.
Substrate Compatibility
The best part of using acrylic rendering for your walls is it is compatible with most types of wall bases. Be it timber or concrete; the application process remains the same. For this reason, reputed companies associated with render installation or rendering repairs are likely to suggest you this particular product over the other ones. Moreover, you can ask the professionals to apply this specific rendering material on your already painted walls as it will be compatible with the paints as well, unlike most of the traditional renders.
Attractive designs
One of the prime reasons for acrylic render to gain popularity over the other options is you can incorporate different designs and textures in the rendering, unlike its competitors. Carry out extensive research on this issue to know about some of the most popular designs in the market and use a preferable one. Create the finish of your choice on the exterior walls to add brilliance. It will quickly get dried up and sit on the wall firmly making it look uniquely textured.
Increased breath ability of the wall
Going through the attributes of the acrylic rendering will also suggest you that this particular rendering efficiently enhances the breath ability of your wall. Despite being stronger than the other traditional rendering, the mix is prone to get expanded naturally. It does not soak water and cause the occurrence of water leakage through the wall. Being water resistance, it does not welcome bacterial infestation or fungi formation throughout the wall. Therefore, it can be said that choosing acrylic rendering will lead you to switch into healthy living.